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Newspaper & Magazine Articles

Salisbury Confederate Prison

Bibliography - Newspaper & Magazine Articles

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Contents:

Primary Sources Published

Brown, Louis, A., ed. "In and Out of Prison During the 60s. Prisoners Evacuated From Salisbury Just Before Stoneman Comes.” Salisbury Post (May 2, 1948, May 16, 1948, May 23, 1948).
The letters of prison guard David McRaven to his wife transcribed and published.

“Ghastly and Inhuman Burials For Prisoners Are Described.” Salisbury Post (July 9, 1950).
Confederate cook Burgess White of Iredell County describing the Prison to his wife in a letter. The letter is transcribed.

Bradshaw, Harriet Ellis. “How a Family Faced Arrival of Stoneman.” Salisbury Post (April 11,1965).
First-person account of the arrival of General Stoneman to Salisbury. Stoneman burned the Prison. The original of this account may be found in the Southern Historical Collection at UNC-Chapel Hill.

Raynor, George, ed. “The Siege of Salisbury: Girls Diary Details Invasion of Union Troops 119 Years Ago.” Salisbury Post (April 12, 1984).
The diary of Mary Eliza Currey, daughter of a doctor at the Prison.

_____. "Diary Reveals New Information About Salisbury." Salisbury Post (July 20, 1989).
Regarding the diary of prisoner Truman C. Howard with excerpts from the diary, which mentions a Confederate Cavalrywoman, Sarah Shepard.

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Contemporary News Accounts

Photocopies of the New York Tribune articles may be found in the Louis A. Brown Papers, Rowan Public Library.

“From North Carolina.” New York Tribune (March 20, 1862).
“From North Carolina.” New York Tribune (June 10, 1862).
“Prisoners of War Held at Salisbury.” New York Tribune (June 13, 1862).
“Union Men Confined at Salisbury.” New York Tribune (July 29, 1862).
“Letters From Richmond and Salisbury.” New York Tribune (Aug. 4, 1862).
“Interesting From Richmond and Salisbury.” New York Tribune (Aug. 4, 1862).
“Deaths of Union Prisoners.” New York Tribune (Aug. 26, 1862).
“Arrival of Union Prisoners.” New York Tribune (June 11, 1863).
“Arrival of Escaped Conscripts From North Carolina.” New York Tribune (March 1, 1864).
“Confederate Prison.” Fayetteville [NC] Observer (April 21, 1864).
“News From Rebel Papers.” New York Tribune (Jan. 18, 1865).
“Latest From Salisbury, North Carolina—Death of Prisoners There.” New York Tribune (Feb. 21, 1865). “Further From Salisbury, N.C.” New York Tribune (Feb. 27, 1865).
“Exchange of officers . . .” New York Tribune (March 14, 1865).
“List of Union Dead in Salisbury,” New York Tribune (March 21, 1865).
“Further From Salisbury, NC—The Condition of Prisoners there Growing Worse.” New York Tribune (Feb.
27, 1865).
“The Dead at Salisbury.” New York Tribune (March 21, 1865).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Infrared Imaging of the Prison Site/Salisbury Confederate Prison Symposium

In 1998, The Robert F. Hoke Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy prevailed upon Bob Melia, an infrared scanning expert, to study the prison site. Texas Infrared donated the sensor equipment. In 2001, Melia returned to Salisbury and conducted further thermal imaging research with a team of archeologists.

Post, Rose. “Imaging Will Help Show Our History.” Salisbury Post (Feb. 22, 1998).

_____. “Bounds of New Technology are Limitless,” Salisbury Post (Feb. 22, 1998).

[Editorial]. "Remnants of Our Past: Bob Melia Looks at Rowan History," Salisbury Post (Feb. 22, 1998).

Post, Rose. ‘Experts Will Hunt For Rowan History,” Salisbury Post (March 16, 1998).

_____. “Thermal Imaging Expert Begins Search for Civil War Sites,” Salisbury Post (March 18, 1998).

_____. “Study: Prison Larger Than Thought,” Salisbury Post (March 20, 1998).

[Editorial]. "Straight Line to the Past: Probing Rowan's Civil War History," Salisbury Post (March 23, 1998).

Post, Rose. "Study: Prison Larger Than Thought." Salisbury Post. (March 20, 1998.)

_____. “Seminar on Confederate Prison May Hold Some Surprises.” Salisbury Post (July 13, 1998).

_____. “Most People Want to Know About Prison,” Salisbury Post (July 23, 1998).

Martin, Jim. “Yankee or Reb, They Still Share History,” Salisbury Post (July 25, 1998).

Ford, Emily. “A New View of the Confederate Prison,” Salisbury Post (July 26, 1998).

[Editorial]. “Building a Future,” Salisbury Post, (July 26,1998).

Post, Rose. “Blue and Gray Unite for Symposium.” Salisbury Post (July 27, 1998).

[Editorial]. “Connections?” Salisbury Post, (July 28, 1998).

Deloache, Frank. “Top 10 [Stories of 1998]: Schools, Zoning, I-85, Thermal Imaging.” Salisbury Post (Dec.31, 1998).

Post, Rose. “Second Symposium on Confederate Prison Opens Friday.” Salisbury Post (April 7, 1999).

Pitzer, Sara. “Prison Symposium Includes Descendants From Both Sides.” Salisbury Post (April 11, 1999).

Wiseman, Sylvia. “Tribute to ‘Faces Never Seen: Civil War Sacrifices Remembered.” Salisbury Post
(April 12, 1999)

Hodge, Alan. “War and Peace,” Our State 67(June 1999): 69-74

Dalesio, Emery P. “Infrared Cameras Look into the Past.” Raleigh News and Observer. (Feb. 29, 2000).
_____. “Underground Cameras Study History” Associated Press Website” http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/ap/20020000319/sc/exp_thermal_archaeology_1.html external-link.png
Viewed (March 19, 2000)

Ford, Steve. Online or Across the Lines, South Forges Ahead. Raleigh News and Observer. (July 19, 1998).
“Space-Age Technologies Study History.” Popular Science. Website version
http://popularscience.com/scitech/features/salisbury/sal2.html. Viewed, March 30, 2000.

Post, Rose. “Confederate Symposium Begins Friday.” Salisbury Post (April 6, 2000).

Knox, Michael. Family Histories Abound at Confederate Prison Symposium. Salisbury Post (April 8, 2000).

Post, Rose. “Confederate Prison Part of ‘Very Hot’ History.” Salisbury Post (April 10, 2000).

Dalesio, Emery P. “Thermal Imaging A Hot New Archeology Tool.” Los Angeles Times (May 14, 2000)

Wineka, Mark. "Digging, Thermal Images Spark New Interest at Prison Site." Salisbury Post (March 12, 2001).

Post, Rose. "Civil War Symposium Sheds Light On Prison." Salisbury Post (April 9, 2001).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Archeological Investigation of the Prison Site

Catawba College, located in Salisbury, used the prison site to teach the basics of archeology for several years in the early 1980s.

Raynor, George. “New Troops Dig Prison Campsite.” Salisbury Post (June 16, 1983).

_____. “They Dig This Course: Students Find Old Bricks, Union Tunnel at Prison.” Salisbury Post (June 7, 1984).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Reenactment of Journalist’s Escape

In 1989, the Society of Civil War Correspondents staged a reenactment of the escape from the prison of three Civil War era journalists. This reenactment was co-sponsored by the Salisbury Post and the Historic Salisbury Foundation.

Bailey, Linda. “Yankee Prison Escape: Society to Recreate Correspondents breakout From City Civil War Prison,” Nov. 7, 1989.

“Newsman’s Escape From North Carolina Prison Will Be Remembered." Editor and Publisher (Dec. 9,
1989).

Simmons, Geitner. “Walk Into History.” Salisbury Post (Dec. 17, 1989).

Belk, Jan. “Journalists’ Flight to be Portrayed Here.” Salisbury Post (Dec. 14, 1989).

Simmons, Geitner. "Salisbury's Prison, a Dismal Den." Salisbury Post (Dec. 16, 1989).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Return of the Prison Flag

The flag that once flew over the prison was returned to North Carolina by the Governor of Indiana in 1962. The North Carolina Museum of History claimed the flag to restore it, and it has never returned to Salisbury.

“Yankee-Seized Flag to Return: Once Flew in Salisbury.” Salisbury Post (Aug., 15, 1962).

“Rowan County Flags Exhibited at N. C. Museum of History.” Salisbury Post (June 3, 1982).

Scarborough, Franklin. “Old Prison Flag Hangs in Rowan Museum.” South Rowan Times (September 7, 1983).

"Confederate Prison Flag May Be Restored.” Salisbury Post (Feb. 3, 1992).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Prison Images

There are two well-known Salisbury Prison images: the 1886 Kraus depiction of the prison and the 1863 Boetticher print showing a baseball game between prisoners and Confederates. A "new" view of the prison was discovered at the New York Historical Society in 1954 and donated to the North Carolina Department of Archives and History. The "new view" was drawn by prisoner Fred Wills. Catawba College Art professor and muralist Walter Hood painted an image of the central prison building (the old mill) burning as a part of the local history mural displayed at the Salisbury, NC shopping mall.

Young, Eva M. “First Picture of Baseball Made in Salisbury Prison." Charlotte Observer (May 14, 1939).

Ragland, Betty Anne. "Oldest Known Baseball Picture Recently Came to Light Here." Salisbury Post (August 2, 1946).

Brawley, James. “Bank Hangs Valued Civil War Scenes.” Salisbury Post (Jan 28, 1954).

"A New View of the Confederate Military Prison." Salisbury Post (August 8, 1954).

Davis, Burke. “First Known Picture of Baseball." Greensboro Daily News (Feb. 14, 1960).

Brawley, James. "Salisbury Artist [Kraus] Painted Prison Scene." Salisbury Post (July 2, 1973).

“Spirited Bidding on items at National Auction: 1863 Baseball Print of Civil War Prisoner brings $33,000."
Sports Collectors Digest (August 25, 1995).

Sumner, Jim. “POWs Collected RBIs in Civil War Prison Camp.” Baseball America (Jan. 20-Feb. 2, 1997).

Kirsch, George B. "Bats, Balls: Baseball and the Civil War." Civil War Times (May 1998): 30-37.

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

A Historic Site?

There have been at least two attempts at promoting the prison site as a memorial/historic site. One followed the mid-1980s reenactment of the journalists’ escape from the prison and the other occurred ten years later at the urging of a local physician. Historic Salisbury Foundation opposed the efforts at establishing a memorial/park, stating that such an institution would harm the existing neighborhood.

“Program Concerns Promoting Prison Site.” Salisbury Post (May 13, 1986).

McKenzie, Edward. "Salisbury, Remember These Soldiers." Salisbury Post (Nov. 11, 1993).

Post, Rose. “Confederate Prison Memorial: Ed McKenzie Wants to See Civil War Prison Site Turned Into A
Park.” Salisbury Post (Nov. 14, 1993).

Post, Rose. “Foundation: Civil War Park Would Harm Neighborhood." Salisbury Post (Nov. 14, 1993).

Editorial. "Tragic Past Remembered: Don't Destroy Neighborhood In Pursuit of Prison's History."
Salisbury Post (Nov. 16, 1993).

Post, Rose. "Civil War Prison Foundation Established." Salisbury Post (Nov. 16, 1995).

Editorial. "Hallowed Ground: The Confederate Project." Salisbury Post Nov. 19, 1995.

Wineka, Mark. "Prison Site Center of Controversy: Historic Salisbury Foundation Wants to Commemorate
Site Without Destroying Neighborhood." Salisbury Post (Dec. 24, 1995).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

The Tunnel

There are many references to tunneling in the original sources and memoirs of Salisbury Prison POWs. A worker digging a waterline discovered one of those tunnels in 1965.

“Civil War Escape Tunnel Uncovered.” Salisbury Post (Sept. 1, 1965).

Raynor, George. “Prison Tunnel Discovery a Major Historical Find.” Salisbury Post (Sept. 3, 1965).

“Historical Marker, New Style.” Salisbury Post (Sept. 16, 1965).

Brown, Louis. "Rebel Prisoners Tried Tunneling to Freedom." Salisbury Post (Nov. 21, 1996).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

Louis Brown’s History

For more than fifty years, the Salisbury Prison has been the research interest of Louis Brown, history professor at Mitchell Community College in Statesville, NC. He published his history of the prison in 1980 and revised it in 1992, depositing his research notes for the second version in Rowan Public Library.

Brawley, James. “Confederate Prison Camp History Finally Published.” Salisbury Post (May 20, 1980).

Robertson James I., "The War in Words." Civil War Times Illustrated (October 3, 1983).

Jerri Menges. "Library gets Civil War Information." Salisbury Post (February 28, 1992).

Post, Rose. "The Confederate Prison: After Eight Years, Louis Brown Has Updated His Book About Salisbury's Darkest Day Of Civil War." Salisbury Post (May 3, 1992).

Brawley, James. “A New Book About the Confederate Prison.” Salisbury Post (?)

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

The Prison’s Postage Stamps

*Dietz, August. “Southern Prisoner-of-War- Letter,” Stamp And Cover Collectors Review (July 1938):
181-182

*Hollowbush, Frank. “An Original Find of POW Covers,” Stamps (Sept 23, 1944): 128-129.

*MacBride, Van Dyk. “A Letter From Salisbury Prison,” Stamps (July 26, 1952): 128-129.

*Antrim, Earl. “Additional Information on Confederate Prisons,” Weekly Philatelic Gossip (June 14, 1958) : 394

_____ “Civil War Prisons and their Covers,” Collectors Club Handbook, no. 12. New York: The Collectors
Club, 1961.

*Kohlepp, John D. “Early Prisoners’ Mail Via Norfolk,” The Confederate Philatelist 25: 3(1980): 67-72.

_____. “The Parry Covers: The Confederate Rate Change and Flag of Truce Mail Via Petersburg, Virginia,”
Confederate Philatelist
25:4(1980): 107-110.

*Morris, Everett. “New Statistics About Civil War Prisoner of War Letters,” The Confederate Philatelist
25:3(1980):67-72.

*Milgram, J. W. “The W.B. Perkins Southern Prison Correspondence,” The Confederate Philatelist 35:3(1990): 105-120.

Lohr, Lawrence. “Salisbury, North Carolina, Military Prison: A Union Sailor’s Correspondence,” Confederate Philatelist 40:6(November-December 1995): 201-211

Hazelton, Bruce W. with Richard H. Byne. "Salisbury, NC Prison Covers from a New Original Find,"
Confederate Philatelist (Sept-Oct. 1997): 189-197.

Cherry, Kevin. “These Covers Bear Stamp of History.” Salisbury Post (April 3, 1999).

*Designates materials NOT owned by Rowan Public Library

General/Miscellaneous Articles

Newson, J.E. “Annals of the War, Chapters of Unwritten History, Stoneman’s North Carolina Raid, Burning of the Federal Prison – Removal of Prisoners, Destruction of the Arsenal, Quartermaster and Commissary Stores – Scenes of Pillage, The End of the Confederacy.” Philadelphia Weekly Times (Dec. 4, 1878) This paper is stored with MSS#9058.

*Crocker, Silas W. “The Horrors of Salisbury Prison.” National Tribune. Sept. 16, 1882.

Wiley, Samuel H. “An Interesting Bit of History.” Evening World (Oct. 8, 1896).
Concerns Prisoner Charles H. Baker naming his daughter Caroline Salisbury Baker.

“Regiment Captured by One Confederate.” Confederate Veteran (Jan. 1898).
Fate of John Fallen (Fowler) who was at prison.

Confederate Veteran (July 1898): 291 Small piece noting that Maj. B. H.
Schley was at the Salisbury Prison and the request of his sister for the return of his sword.

“?” Salisbury Daily Sun (Jan 29, 1900)

“Helped To Tunnel Out, Massachusetts Man Who Was In Prison Here." [Salisbury] Truth Index (Mar. 7, 1900).

“High Authority on Prisoners of War.” Confederate Veteran (Oct. 1906): 453.

“Prison Pens of the Civil War; Experiences of Bixby of Epsom, NH, Escape From the Salisbury Stockade and the recapture.” Boston Globe (Nov. 28, 1909).

“Veteran Will Attend.” [Fayette Co. PA?]: Genius of Liberty (? 1910).

“Will Honor Visitors, Unveil Monument Nov. 16, Pennsylvanians to be Shown Every Courtesy, Program for the Day.” Salisbury Post (Nov. 10, 1910).

“Visitors Wednesday, Train Arrives at 9:30, Automobile Owners Urged to be on Hand Promptly at Stations.” Salisbury Post (Nov. 14, 1910).

“Pennsylvania Shaft Unveiled: State Officials Take Part at Salisbury, NC Memorial to Dead Soldiers.” Daily News Standard (Nov. 17, 1910).

“Salisbury Memorial Dedicated.” Pittsburgh Press (Nov. 17, 1910).

“Monument Dedicated, The Veterans in Blue, the Ceremonies, Great Throng Present to Witness the Ceremony, Tears Flow Freely.” Salisbury Post (Nov. 18, 1910).

“War Veteran’s Notable Record,” Watertown [NY] Times (June 18, 1913)
Regarding Union POW August Kissel and his escape from Salisbury.

Drummond, Robert L. “A Kindly Deed Remembered.” Confederate Veteran (Jan. 1916): 42.

“Man Who Buried Kissel Alive, Theresa Veteran Locates Old War Time Comrade, Thrilling Tale of Escape,” Watertown [NY] Times (April 28, 1916).

“Veteran Locates Comrade of Civil War: Letter Puts Him in touch With Mountaineer,” Syracuse [NY] Herald (May 14, 1916).

Stiles, John C. “First Prisoner Captured by the Confederates.” Confederate Veteran (Dec. 1917): 561.

“Famous War Prisons and Escapes.” Confederate Veteran (Nov. 1923): 411-414.

Hamilton, J.G. DeRoulhac Hamilton. “The Prison Experiences of Randolph Shotwell.” North Carolina Historical Review. 2(April 1925): 147-161.

Thomas, Theresa Meroney. "Mementos of Confederate Prison Here Almost All Disappeared: Prison Once Occupied 40 Acres. "Salisbury Post (May 15, 1934).

_____. “Confederate Prison Now Exists Only in Memory.” Greensboro Daily News (November 8, 1936).

“What became of Receipts of Confederate Prison Sale?” [Salisbury] Morning Herald (Feb. 5, 1938).

Henderson, Archibald. “Cruelty in Civil War Prison: Union Prisoners Incarcerated at Salisbury Suffered Because Federal Secretary of War Would Not Let Medicine Be Sent There.” Daily News April 24, 1938.

_____. ‘Salisbury’s Confederate Prison Was Frightful Scene of Misery: Much of Suffering of Union Due to Federal Government.” Durham Herald-Sun April 24, 1938.

Staudemire, Irene Slate. “State’s Largest National Military Cemetery is Located in Salisbury.” Salisbury Post (April 1939).

“Have You Seen—This Prison Marker?” Salisbury Post. (August 2, 1939).

“Ladies of Legend.” Charlotte Observer. (April 4, 1948).

“Dr. Scipio Bond Pays Long Delayed Visit to Grave of Father Buried in Cemetery Here,” Salisbury Post
(May 9, 1948) (A retired Minnesota dentist visits the grave of his father.)

Brown, Louis A. “Dead Figures Seen Inaccurate.” Salisbury Post. (May 23, 1948).

“Ex-Slave Recalls Burning of Prison: Estella Gibson Says Stoneman Hit Grove Area.” Salisbury Post (July 8, 1951).

"Today 88th Anniversary of Stoneman’s Raid on City." Salisbury Post (April 12, 1953).

Davis, Chester S. “Stoneman’s Raid into Southwest North Carolina.” [Winston-Salem] Journal and Sentinel (October 4, 1953).

Brawley, James. “Andersonville Burdened Salisbury Prison.” Salisbury Post (Nov. 13, 1955).

Cunningham, H.H. “Edmund Burke Haywood and Raleigh’s Confederate Hospitals.” North Carolina Historical Review 35(April 1958): 153-166.

Raynor, George. "Almost a Century has passed Since Flames Wiped Out Infamous Prison Here.” Salisbury Post (April 9, 1959).

Thomas, Theresa Meroney. “12,000 Dead Yankees.” Charlotte Observer (July 2, 1961).

Brawley, James. “Factory Becomes A Prison.” Salisbury Post (Sept. 10, 1961).

_____. “Opening of Confederate Prison.” Salisbury Post (Jan 14, 1962.)

_____. “ Yankee Cure For Corns.” Salisbury Post (Jan 28, 1962).

_____. “Citizens Feared Prison.” Salisbury Post (Feb. 11, 1962).

Jarrett, Calvin D. “Livingstone’s Son Died at Salisbury.” Greensboro Daily News (Feb. 25, 1962).

Brawley, James. “Many Escaped From Confederate Prison.” Salisbury Post (March 11, 1962).

_____. “Prison Was a Source of Worry.” Salisbury Post. (May 21, 1962).

_____. “Prisoner Named Daughter for City.” Salisbury Post (Aug. 12, 1962).

_____. “Mrs. Denny Solves Historical Riddle.” Salisbury Post. Aug 19, 1962 (Aug. 19, 1962).

Spencer, Thomas. “Looking ‘Em Over.” Dallas [GA] New Era (Feb. 21, 1963).
Article wanting to know why Andersonville gets such a bad rap when Salisbury was just as bad.

Antrim, Earl. "Twenty Cent Green." The Confederate Philatelist (Sep. 1963): 66-75.

Weaver, Fred B. “Medical Care in a Confederate Prison." North Carolina Medical Journal (May, 1964).

“Raiders Had Easy Time Until They Reached River.” Salisbury Post (April 11, 1965).

Jones, Ora L. "North or South—The Prisons Were Hell." The State (Nov. 1, 1970).

Burton, W.C. “Civil War Prisons: Death Camps.” Greensboro Daily News (Jan 10, 1971).

_____. “Salisbury Prison—A House of Horror.” Greensboro Daily News (Jan., 10, 1971).

“Civil War Prison Here Topic of Lion’s Speaker.” Salisbury Post (Jan. 3, 1974).
News account of Louis Brown’s talk to Salisbury Lion’s Club.

“Civil War Prison Treatment About Same on Both Sides.” Salisbury Post. (May 3, 1974).
On Louis Brown’s talk to the Salisbury Civitan Club.

Cunningham, O. Edward. “Strike For Liberty.” Civil War Times Illustrated (Oct. 1975).

Brawley, James, ed. May Wheat Shober. “Happiness and Gloom in Old Factory.” Salisbury Post (Nov. 7, 1976).

_____. May Wheat Shober. “Yankee Prisoners Freed With a Vengeance." Salisbury Post (Nov. 14, 1976).

Raynor, George. "Yankees Invaded Salisbury." Salisbury Post (April 12. 1983).

_____. “Prison Doctor a Competent, Caring Man.” Salisbury Post (April 12, 1984).
Regarding Dr. Richard Owen Currey who worked to make living conditions of prisoners better.

_____. "Yanks Made A Desperate Rush For Freedom." Salisbury Post (Nov. 11, 1984).

_____. "Prison Death Totals Exaggerated By Yankees." Salisbury Post (Nov. 17, 1985).

_____. “She Nursed Soldiers in Prison.” Salisbury Post (Feb. 9, 1986).

_____. "Monument Dedication Helped Bind Civil War Wounds.” Salisbury Post. (March 30, 1986).

Parsons, Grant. "Taped Tour recalls Confederate Prison." Salisbury Post (March 30, 1989).
Regarding Audiotape tour of the Prison Site.

“Union POW Never Forgot Summers: Iredell Woman Memorialized on Monument,” Statesville Record and Landmark (Jan. 29, 1989).
August Kissel, Union POW and monument maker, memorialized an Iredell County woman for helping his escape from the Salisbury Prison.

“Those Blood Fields: New Play Centers on Prison.” Salisbury Post (Oct. 18, 1990).
Catawba College Drama Professor writes a play concerning the Salisbury Prison.

Turkington, Frederick T. “More Dead than Alive. Experiences of a Falmouth Boy in Rebel Prisons,” Spritsail 5(Winter, 1991).

Williams, Paige. "Civil War Prison's Deadly History." Charlotte Observer (March 1, 1992).
Regarding Archeologists and historians survey of North Carolina Civil War sites.

Brown, Louis. "Prison Life Was Harsh: Death Toll Reached 4,000." Salisbury Post (May 3, 1992).

Curtis, Mrs. C. Edison. "The Salisbury National Cemetery: A Legacy of the Salisbury Confederate Prison."
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